Group decision making is a situation in which individuals collectively determine solution for the problem and consider a course of action. Decision made collectively is more effective than made by individuals, because there are many perspectives and ideas. It provides advantage of synergy which means whole is greater than the sum of its parts. It also provides advantage of sharing information that each member has specific and unique information that can be obtained through group decision making process. Group decision making is also known as Japanese Decision Making.
1) Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
2) Delphi Technique
Nominal Group Technique
Under nominal group technique each participants are given writing papers in order to write down their ideas about what the decision should be. The group members usually record their ideas privately. After they have written down their ideas, one by one each participant presents his idea which is recorded on a whiteboard or a chart. After all ideas are presented each participant votes on each idea.The idea which is voted by every contributing member is selected as the final solution to the problem.
The NGT technique is good for making quick decision and motivating individual creativity. It also ensures equal participation.
Under Delphi Technique first the problem is identified and a questionnaire is prepared related to the problem. Then experts are selected and a questionnaire mailed to them. These experts are physically distant from each other and unknown to each other. They are usually managers. They are asked to provide potential solutions to the problem. Each group of member answers the questions and sends it back to the central coordinator. These results are compiled at a central location and a second questionnaire is prepared based on the previous answers. This survey with different questionnaire is repeated usually four or five times until a consensus is obtained.